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What is Authorization in ASP.NET?

Usually after a user is authenticated by means of a login, the process of authorization is followed where the decision is made whether a user should be granted access to a specific resource.

There are 2 ways to authorize access to a given resource:

URL authorization:

URL authorization is performed by the UrlAuthorizationModule
It maps users and roles to URLs in ASP.NET applications.

File authorization:

File authorization is performed by the FileAuthorizationModule.
It checks the access control list of the .aspx or .asmx handler file to determine whether a user should have access to the file.